What do New Zealanders generally think about bitcoin and
What do New Zealanders generally think about bitcoin and
(PDF) Quantitative analysis of Bitcoin exchange rate and
SHA-1 - BitcoinWiki
1 Introduction 2 Hawkes Process
maximum likelihood - MLE of a multivariate Hawkes process
Monero Moon Prize
Announcing the Monero Moon Prize!
I pledge 10,000 Monero to the winner of a competition that begins right now. I will award the prize for completing a task which is very difficult, but not impossible. The prize of 10,000 Monero will be awarded to the first team or individual to operate a 3D printer on the moon. This 3D printer must use lunar soil as its raw print material and demonstrate that it can reliably produce custom mechanical components. I have created a set of rules for the competition but I welcome feedback on the details. My desire is that following the competition, the winning team is able to continue to operate the 3D printer on the Moon’s surface and to indefinitely produce parts from lunar soil and sunlight.
Safely deliver a payload to the surface of the Moon.
Deploy 3D printer and some method of gathering soil for its continued operation.
Print a series of 3 test parts from lunar soil using an additive manufacturing technique which does not rely on external binding agents from Earth. The printer cannot rely on supplies from Earth for its continued manufacture of parts.
Minor manipulation and/or assembly of parts will be required.
The build volume of the printer must be at least 150x150x150mm with dimensional tolerances to within 0.2mm of specifications. (Note: this level of performance is comparable to mid-priced 3D printers currently available in the home market)
The ultimate tensile strength of the parts must be greater than 10 MPa in any direction (about 1/3 that of common glass).
The winning team must meet these objectives on or before December 19, 2022; or 50 years since man last stepped foot on the Moon. We as a species must not go 50 years before taking our next step towards the Moon’s development.
Exponential Increase in Monero’s Value
The value of cryptocurrencies increases exponentially with adoption. A prize purse of 10,000 Monero is currently worth about $120,000. This meager amount is unlikely to incentivize a lunar mission, considering it costs roughly $15 million to launch a 10-kg payload to the Moon . However, if the market adoption of Monero becomes similar to what Bitcoin enjoys today, then the 10,000 Monero prize purse would be roughly a hundred times more valuable (~$12 million) and enough to recoup the majority of launch expenses. The size of the prize could also increase through donations or pledges made by additional backers. Any team in the competition could offset their own costs by pursuing corporate sponsorships or pairing their entry for the Monero Moon Prize with another competition like the Google Lunar XPRIZE, where a team must have a robot move 500 m on the Moon’s surface. There are many possibilities for adding incentives to this competition, this is simply a first step.
What is Lunar Soil Made Of?
Glass and metal, mostly[3,4]. Aluminum, titanium, tungsten, and iron. Volatiles like ice and many useful trace elements[5,6,7]. Most soil particles are very fine with sharp angles, turned to powder through billions of years of meteoric impact. Older, more weathered particles have small bits of non-oxidized iron on their surface and imbedded within, making them efficiently heated with microwaves [8,9] and levitate in magnetic fields.
What Can Lunar Soil be Made Into?
Just about any solid object you can think of. Researchers have turned lunar soil simulant into gears, bolts, bricks, and bunkers[11,12,13,14,15]. They do this by selectively melting the soil in a desired shape and then cooling it until it hardens. Possible heat sources include lasers, microwaves, and concentrated solar, to name a few. Many technologies in use by DIY maker communities and additive manufacturers can be extended with little modification to the lunar environment. Candidate technologies include selective sintering and fused deposition modeling. In selective sintering, a laser or other heat source is directed at a bed of powder which is partially melted and allowed to re-harden. Here’s a demonstration of how simple the process can be[16,17]. Fused deposition modeling is a type of 3D printing that you are probably most familiar with. Some material, typically plastic, is heated until it can be extruded out of a small nozzle. This extruded material is used to draw a 2D image on a flat surface. The height of the nozzle is then raised and another 2D image is drawn on top of the old. This process continues through many layers until a laminated 3D shape emerges. This technology was recently applied where small beads of optical glass acted as the raw print material, a substance not too different from lunar soil[19,20,21]. We can see from these examples that there are at least a few techniques for printing reliable parts from Moon dust. All major technical hurdles have been passed, now it’s just a matter of application-specific design.
Why a prize?
From the Orteig Prize sending aircraft across the Atlantic, to the Ansari XPRIZE sending private manned spacecraft to space, to the ongoing Google Lunar XPRIZE where teams are asked to drive a rover 500 m on the Moon, incentive competitions have simply been shown to work. Prizes are an effective way of directing the efforts of others towards a unified goal with potentially universal utility. I do not care who takes the first step in the extraterrestrial manufacturing revolution, just as long as someone takes it. Prizes are an excellent investment. The prize backers only spend money if the competition garners a favorable result. The teams are compelled to initially spend their own resources to investigate several parallel designs. Incentive competitions have historically seen teams spend a combined $16 for every $1 used to fund the prize[22,23]; this represents a remarkable 16:1 return on your investment in terms of total R&D! A competition also adds extraneous benefits. Humans tend to be thrilled by competition. They love the challenge, the race against another pack of humans. A need emerges to quickly find a solution and win at all costs. Good solutions to the most difficult problems have been found under these conditions and frequently within shortened timeframes. We as a species need the ability to extract material resources from extraterrestrial sources as quickly as possible. I believe an incentive competition is a fast, inexpensive, and exciting way for us all to realize that goal.
Who Am I?
I wish to remain anonymous and feel lucky that this right is afforded to me by Monero. I hold a higher degree in a field related to this competition and would be inclined towards continued technical discussions on these topics. I will send the pledged funds to a multisig wallet held in escrow once that becomes a possibility, but reserve the right to withdraw my funds from the competition before the stated deadline if it appears that no reasonable effort is being made by any team to win the prize.
http://www.parabolicarc.com/2010/03/15/send-1pound-payload-moon-950k/ http://lunar.xprize.org/about/guidelines McKay, David S., et al. "The lunar regolith." Lunar sourcebook (1991): 285-356. Noble, Sarah. "The Lunar Regolith." (2009). Duke, Michael B., et al. "Development of the Moon." Reviews in mineralogy and geochemistry 60.1 (2006): 597-655. Taylor, Jeff, Larry Taylor, and Mike Duke. "Concentrations of Volatiles in the Lunar Regolith." (2007). Crawford, Ian A. "Lunar resources: A review." Progress in Physical Geography 39.2 (2015): 137-167. Taylor, Lawrence, et al. "Lunar Dust Problem: From Liability to Asset." 1st space exploration conference: continuing the voyage of discovery. 2005. Taylor, Lawrence A., and Thomas T. Meek. "Microwave sintering of lunar soil: properties, theory, and practice." Journal of Aerospace Engineering 18.3 (2005): 188-196. Colwell, J. E., et al. "Lunar surface: Dust dynamics and regolith mechanics." Reviews of Geophysics 45.2 (2007). Krishna Balla, Vamsi, et al. "First demonstration on direct laser fabrication of lunar regolith parts." Rapid Prototyping Journal 18.6 (2012): 451-457. Fateri, Miranda, and Andreas Gebhardt. "Process Parameters Development of Selective Laser Melting of Lunar Regolith for On‐Site Manufacturing Applications." International Journal of Applied Ceramic Technology 12.1 (2015): 46-52. Indyk, Stephen. Structural members produced from unrefined lunar regolith, a structural assessment. Diss. Rutgers University-Graduate School-New Brunswick, 2015. Lim, Sungwoo, and Mahesh Anand. "In-Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU) derived extra-terrestrial construction processes using sintering-based additive manufacturing techniques–focusing on a lunar surface environment." (2015). Goulas, Athanasios, et al. "3D printing with moondust." Rapid Prototyping Journal 22.6 (2016): 864-870. Kayser, Markus. SolarSinter Project: www.markuskayser.com. Rietema, Menno-Jan. "Design of a solar sand printer." (2013). Klein, John, et al. "Additive manufacturing of optically transparent glass." 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing 2.3 (2015): 92-105. Fabes, B. D., and W. H. Poisl. "Processing of glass-ceramics from lunar resources." (1991). Fabes, B. D., et al. "Melt-processing of lunar ceramics." (1992). Magoffin, Michael, and John Garvey. "Lunar glass production using concentrated solar energy." Space Programs and Technologies Conference. 1990. Guthrie, Julian, Branson, Richard, and Hawking, Stephen. How to Make a Spaceship: A Band of Renegades, an Epic Race, and the Birth of Private Spaceflight. Penguin Press, September, 2016. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orteig_Prize
Addendum: The Philosophical Rant (It’s a long one…)
Things could be so much different than they are. As a species, we have arrived in our current state through a series of steps so complex that the thing we call reality might as well be an arbitrary selection from the possibilities of what could be. In this reality, our reality, humans have made a massive misstep that has put our society and our species at risk. This glaring bit of poor judgment is ongoing, yet no action is being taken to resolve the situation. No machines are being built outside of Earth’s orbit. Even though we are a space faring species, we have no plans for gathering resources from outside of Earth or for building the extraterrestrial infrastructure that is necessary to take humans to other planets and beyond. We are not amassing the arsenal necessary to ward off extinction from asteroid impacts nor are we building the tools we need to fight runaway global warming through sunshades or the like. We could be building things, lots of things, outside of Earth’s gravity and be permanently expanding our reach into the Cosmos. We can do all of this with existing technology – low tech by today’s standards – the only requirement is a slight shift of human priority. I want to try in my own way to fill this gap. I want our reality to be different than it is and I think I know how to do that. We must encourage the tinkerers and the builders to venture into space. And not just be there and exist in space, but to play in it, interact with it. A compelling challenge like the one that I have outlined would bring adventurers, those wary of traditional ways of doing things who take bold steps into new territory. I want to find the people in this world who want to dip their (virtual) hands into the Moon’s soil and pull out an object born from their imagination. Following the competition, the winning team will have the ability to make parts indefinitely on the surface of the Moon using soil and sunlight. These parts could be assembled to form the bodies of robots, most notably those of additional printers; containers for material storage; energy collection apparatuses; and a host of other applications, with each addition bringing even greater capabilities for extracting resources and building upon the lunar surface. Proper preparation could greatly extend the reach of this first lunar base to encourage it to grow organically from resources collected on the Moon. The winning team could build a large collection of printers and robots by sending just a few extra electronics, motors, and Mylar sheets for solar collection. This hardware could be installed into the bodies of printers and robots, all made on the Moon. The added costs of launching a slightly heavier payload would be minimal compared to the potential returns that you could receive from increased operational capability on the Moon. The creative limits of the winning team will be pushed to find new ways of harnessing the few resources they started with. The lunar soil contains a range of extremely useful materials such as aluminum, iron, copper, titanium, and magnesium; all of which are easily extractable for use in specialized mechanical or electrical components. Small amounts of water can be liberated from the soil as it is melted. This water could be collected and used to drive steam engines as a feasible first step towards low-tech locomotion on the Moon. Simple heating elements could be produced from parabolic solar collectors improvised from Mylar sheets applied to the surface of troughs dug into the soil. Continued support from Earth via rocket bound payloads could accelerate efforts of expanding upon the efforts of the winning team or their model could be repeated elsewhere on the Moon. From one printer comes many. Each new printer will build redundancy into the system and expand the infrastructure required for extraterrestrial manufacturing. From each new robot comes more soil and food for the growing manufacturing base. With proper preparation, this process can continue indefinitely.
tldr; Let's take Monero to the Moon and then let it return the favor.
Edit 1: I set up the website moneromoonprize.com to post additional information moving forward and propose that we use /moneromoonprize for continued discussion of the competition beyond this thread.
Edit 2: Verification of Funds
address:44aaLQFizmb2FdVKuBxwS5i8hgExwZyXpN7APKPeXmyYEc93ecZsweAJ2Rr4g8FDoPjBkXBrXARL4N3cpKbAWxCyUb8LfFM viewkey:3bc4c7354f7b870985a3698a23bcfbd63e01ece14d08eab16ac2b815157a7c03 key images (available for 24 hrs): https://dropfile.to/QzCc2r0
Abstract Cryptocurrencies, based on and led by Bitcoin, have shown promise as infrastructure for pseudonymous online payments, cheap remittance, trustless digital asset exchange, and smart contracts. However, Bitcoin-derived blockchain protocols have inherent scalability limits that trade-off between throughput and latency and withhold the realization of this potential.This paper presents Bitcoin-NG, a new blockchain protocol designed to scale. Based on Bitcoin's blockchain protocol, Bitcoin-NG is Byzantine fault tolerant, is robust to extreme churn, and shares the same trust model obviating qualitative changes to the ecosystem.In addition to Bitcoin-NG, we introduce several novel metrics of interest in quantifying the security and efficiency of Bitcoin-like blockchain protocols. We implement Bitcoin-NG and perform large-scale experiments at 15% the size of the operational Bitcoin system, using unchanged clients of both protocols. 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Miller, A., Litton, J., Pachulski, A., Gupta, N., Levin, D., Spring, N., and Bhattacharjee, B. Preprint: Discovering Bitcoins public topology and influential nodes. http://cs.umd.edu/projects/coinscope/coinscope.pdf, 2015.  Moraru, I., Andersen, D. G., and Kaminsky, M. Egalitarian Paxos. In ACM Symposium on Operating Systems Principles (2012).  Nakamoto, S. Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system. http://www.bitcoin.org/ bitcoin.pdf, 2008.  Nayak, K., Kumar, S., Miller, A., and Shi, E. Stubborn mining: Generalizing selfish mining and combining with an eclipse attack. IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive 2015 (2015), 796.  Pazmino, J. E., and da Silva Rodrigues, C. K. ˜ Simply dividing a Bitcoin network node may reduce transaction verification time. The SIJ Transactions on Computer Networks and Communication Engineering (CNCE) 3, 2 (February 2015), 17–21.  Pease, M. C., Shostak, R. E., and Lamport, L. Reaching agreement in the presence of faults. J. ACM 27, 2 (1980), 228–234.  Peck, M. E. Adam Back says the Bitcoin fork is a coup. http://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/computing/networks/the-bitcoin-for-is-a-coup, Aug 2015.  Poon, J., and Dryja, T. The Bitcoin Lightning Network. http://lightning.network/lightning-network.pdf, February 2015. Draft 0.5.  Sapirshtein, A., Sompolinsky, Y., and Zohar, A. Optimal selfish mining strategies in Bitcoin. CoRR abs/1507.06183 (2015).  Schneider, F. B. Implementing fault-tolerant services using the state machine approach: A tutorial. ACM Computing Surveys 22, 4 (Dec. 1990), 299–319.  Sompolinsky, Y., and Zohar, A. Accelerating Bitcoin’s transaction processing. fast money grows on trees, not chains. In Financial Cryptography (Puerto Rico, 2015).  Sompolinsky, Y., and Zohar, A. Secure high-rate transaction processing in Bitcoin. In Financial Cryptography and Data Security - 19th International Conference, FC 2015, San Juan, Puerto Rico, January 26-30, 2015, Revised Selected Papers (2015), pp. 507–527.  Stathakopoulou, C. 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Leaked Transcript Proves Russiagaters Have Been Right All Along (Spoiler: Not Really)
Authored by Caitlin Johnstone via Medium.com, A transcript of exchanges between US President Donald Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin has been leaked to National News Conglomerate by an anonymous source within the Kremlin. We here at NNC have confirmed the authenticity of this document using the same rigorous verification process we’ve been using to authenticate the evidence for all our other reporting on Russia’s involvement in the 2016 US elections over the last two years. These verification methods include hunches, gut intuitions, and an introspective assessment of the way our feelings feel. The following exchanges revealed in this transcript provide the clearest evidence yet that the President of the United States has been in collusion with the Russian government for years.This introduction has been authored by the editorial board of the National News Conglomerate. Obey. 11/9/2016 Trump: I have done as you commanded, my dominant and all-powerful lord. I have conspired with your hackers to steal the election, and now I’m going to be president! I want to thank you for not releasing that video footage of those Russian prostitutes I hired to urinate on a bed the Obamas once slept in. If that had come out it would have offended and alienated a lot of people, which is something I never normally do. Putin: Yes that is an old KGB tactic called kompromat, a word which only extremely intelligent people know about. Keep this line of communication open. As long as you do as I command, your pee pee tape will remain secret. Trump: One thing I’m curious about though my lord, if you don’t mind my asking. If you already had an army of hackers targeting Democratic Party emails, why did you need my help? Couldn’t you just have hacked the emails and published them on your own? Why did you need me to interact with them at all? Putin: Moral support, mainly. We don’t need to get into specifics. Trump: Oh okay. ~ 1/20/2017 Trump: I’m in! Whew! I was really worried that leaked dossier would be the end of me! What are my instructions, my lord? Putin: Begin introducing racism and division to the United States. America has never experienced these things before, and it will shock and disorient them. With the US divided against itself, your nation will be far too weak to stand against my plans of total world domination. Trump: That’s a really tall order! America has always been a harmonious place where everyone gets along up until today. I’ll try my best though. Anything else? Putin: Yes, make them distrust your nation’s large media outlets and convince them that the US intelligence community is often dishonest. Trump: That will be really hard because those institutions have always been trusted for their unparalleled integrity. But your wish is my command, oh lord. ~ 4/7/2017 Putin: Bomb a Syrian airbase. Trump: What? Really? Aren’t they, like, your allies? Putin: Exactly. This will throw inquisitive minds off the scent. We can’t have them finding out about that pee tape. Trump: Are you sure? Some people are saying that chemical attack looks like it could have been perpetrated by the many terrorist factions in Syria and not the government. Putin: Who cares? Have you seen how relentless they’ve been in exposing us?? Have you never watched Rachel Maddow? That woman is a psychic bloodhound, masterfully sniffing out the truth at every turn! We can’t afford to take chances. Do as I say. Trump: Yes sir. Putin: And see if you can arrest that WikiLeaks guy. ~ 5/14/17 Trump: Hey do you want me to do anything about Montenegro’s addition to NATO? Putin: No. NATO expansion is good. Trump: Uhhh okay. ~ 6/28/17 Trump: Who do you want tapped for Ukraine envoy? Putin: Kurt Volker. Trump: Volker? He hates you! He’s like the biggest Russia hawk ever. Putin: We still need to throw the Russiagaters off the scent. We’re playing 3-D chess here. This is high-level disinformation, or dezinformatsiya as very smart people call it. I want as many Russia hawks in your administration as possible. Trump: 3-D chess? Alright. I guess you know what you’re doing. ~ 8/30/17 Putin: Shut down the Russian consulate in San Francisco and throw out a bunch of diplomats. That will confuse the hell out of them. ~ 11/21/17 Putin: Now approve the sale of arms to Ukraine. Not even Obama would do that. This will throw them off the trail for sure. ~ 1/1/18 Putin: Happy new year. Force RT and Sputnik to register as foreign agents. ~ 1/29/18 Putin: Make sure your Nuclear Posture Review greatly escalates its aggressive posture toward Russia. ~ 2/14/18 Putin: Happy Valentine’s Day. Don’t worry about those Russians your guys killed in Syria. ~ 2/19/18 Putin: Send a fleet of war ships to the Black Sea. ~ 3/25/18 Putin: Better expel a few dozen diplomats over the Skripal thing. ~ 4/5/18 Putin: Sanction a bunch of Russian oligarchs. ~ 4/10/18 Putin: Bomb Syria. Trump: What?? Again? Putin: Yes. Trump: What the hell, man? Why’d you even recruit me if you’re just going to have me do everything all the Russia hawks want? Putin: Well, you know how I told you we were playing 3-D chess against the Russiagate investigation? Trump: Yeah? Putin: Well that wasn’t enough. Now we’re playing 4-D chess. Trump: Fine, whatever, I don’t care. Just don’t release my pee tape. ~ 7/17/18 Trump: Oh man. They’re really making a major fuss about that summit. What should I do? Putin: Play it cool. Don’t let them know about our secret diabolical plot. Trump: Right. Remind me what that was again? Putin: Make Jim Acosta feel really, really sad. ~ 9/2/18 Putin: Have you arrested Julian Assange yet? Trump: Working on it. ~ 10/20/18 Putin: I like John Bolton’s idea. Pull out of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. ~ 11/25/18 Putin: Make sure your administration loudly and aggressively backs Ukraine in our Kerch Strait spat. Trump: OMFG this is getting too weird. Are you just trolling me? What the hell is this? Trump: Hello? Trump: Are you there? Trump: Answer me! Putin: 5-D chess. * * * Thanks for reading! The best way to get around the internet censors and make sure you see the stuff I publish is to subscribe to the mailing list for my_ website, which will get you an email notification for everything I publish. 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I'm struggling with implementing the maximum likelihood estimator for a multivariate Hawkes process (HP). Specifically, while the analytical expression for a log-likelihood function of a univariate HP can be found easily online (e.g. Ozaki, 1979), there seem to be different (inconsistent or equivalent?) versions of the log-likelihood function of a multivariate HP out there. > CVE-2018-17144, a fix for which was released on September 18th in Bitcoin Core versions 0.16.3 and 0.17.0rc4, includes both a Denial of Service component and a critical inflation vulnerability. > This could allow a miner to inflate the supply of Bitcoin as they would be then able to claim the value being spent twice. In early 2005, Rijmen and Oswald published an attack on a reduced version of SHA-1 — 53 out of 80 rounds — which finds collisions with a computational effort of fewer than 2 80 operations. In February 2005, an attack by Xiaoyun Wang, Yiqun Lisa Yin, and Hongbo Yu was announced. The authors have presented a collision for 58-round SHA-1, found with 2 33 hash operations. A Hawkes process is a self-exciting point process. There is no tag wiki for this tag … yet! Tag wikis help introduce newcomers to the tag. They contain an overview of the topic defined by the tag, along with guidelines on its usage. All registered users may propose new tag wikis. 2.2 Simulation of univariate Hawkes process We can simulate this self-a⁄ected intensity process by the usual thinning method . Below shows part of a simulated univariate intensity process. Note the clustering of intensity as a result of the self-excitation feature of the Hawkes process. 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 Time, sec 1 ec
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